News aggregator

  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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In northeast Syria, a civilian exodus and a fast-moving aid response

IRIN - Middle East - Mon, 14/10/2019 - 4:45pm

Tens of thousands of people fleeing the Turkish offensive in northeast Syria in a chaotic exodus are seeking emergency shelter in schools and homes, aid workers say, as they rush to provide them with food, water, and medical assistance.

With people escaping the air and ground offensive by car, truck, motorbike, or on foot, the number of people on the move is unclear. The UN’s emergency aid coordination body, OCHA, said Sunday that an estimated 150,000-160,000 people had left their homes, the Kurdish Red Crescent (KRC) said more than 190,000 people had taken flight, and Save the Children put the number at 210,000.

Most have fled Syria-Turkey border areas inwards into the provinces of Raqqa and Hassakeh, where aid workers are doing their best to provide for their immediate needs. At least one hospital at the centre of the chaos, in a small Hassakeh town called Tel Tamer, said it was facing a critical shortage of medicines and equipment. It has since reportedly seen the entrance of Syrian government troops.

Overall, the UN estimates that 2.2 million people live in parts of northeast Syria controlled by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) – the Kurdish-led militia that played a key role in fighting off the so-called Islamic State group, and is now battling the Turkish offensive, which began last Wednesday.

Turkey considers the SDF to be a terrorist group because of its connections to the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or PKK, a Turkey-based Kurdish separatist organisation.

Dr. Dilgesh Issa, a medical coordinator for the KRC, said Tel Tamer had been overwhelmed by the sudden arrival of more than 11,100 displaced people, including children whose parents had been killed in the violence. He said most of the new arrivals had come without any belongings, and many were injured.

“They have nothing, nothing at all,” said Issa, who spoke to The New Humanitarian from Tel Tamer on Monday morning. “They need food, blankets, as well as water.”

Meanwhile, the United States said over the weekend that it had ordered the remainder of its approximately 1,000 troops out of northern Syria (a smaller number had previously moved away from two border posts), and the SDF said it had reached a deal with the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to help thwart the Turkish advance. 

The United States had supported and funded the SDF in its fight against IS, but last week US President Donald Trump gave Turkey the go-ahead to enter northeast Syria, where Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has said he wants to create a “safe zone” to resettle refugees and clear away “terrorist groups”

While the SDF runs much of Syria’s northeast and an assortment of rebel groups is still fighting Syrian government troops for much of the northwest, including Idlib province, forces loyal to al-Assad control most of the country after more than eight and a half years of war. 

Locals on the front line of response

Many Syrian aid workers – who were the bulk of those responding on the ground even before most internationals were evacuated from the northeast in the past few days – have themselves been hit hard by the conflict.

“Our [Syrian] staff have very much been affected,” said Sonia Kush, Syrian response director for the NGO Save the Children. “Many are displaced themselves; they’ve gone back to villages to live with their families, or the towns they’re originally from.”

For now, most aid groups with local staff present are still delivering aid. That includes Hassan, an aid worker with a foreign NGO in Hassakeh city, where the KRC said more than 100,000 civilians had sought refuge. “I can see tears in their eyes and feel fear in their hearts,” he said of the newly displaced people.

“Water and food are our priority now, in addition to blankets and safe shelters,” said Hassan, who asked that his last name not be published because he was not authorised to speak to the media. 

Issa, in Tel Tamer, said he was concerned that displaced people might become vulnerable to viruses and respiratory tract infections, with night-time temperatures dipping to 15 degrees Celsius at night, and colder months ahead. 

“We are suffering from very difficult conditions, and I cannot predict the diseases that will appear soon,” Issa said. “There are a lot of wounded; there is not enough room at the hospital, and we are running out of drugs.”

The rapidly changing situation in the northeast means that aid organisations are having to constantly re-evaluate their plans.

“It all depends on who is controlling [what]. If the Syrian government takes over Tel Tamer and moves into Hassakeh [city], it’s going to be quite difficult for our staff to engage in a response,” said Kush. “We are working on probably three different scenarios, and as events unfold we adapt our plans.”

Water woes

Getting safe drinking water to displaced people emerged as a major concern after a power line connected to a pumping station in the border town of Ras al-Ayn was reportedly hit on 9 and 10 October. 

OCHA says the station supplies water to 400,000 people in Hassakeh and the surrounding areas, including the 68,000-strong camp of al-Hol. In its latest update, the emergency body said an old water pumping station was being “reactivated” as a temporary stopgap, a dammed lake was being treated, and water was being trucked in to those who need it. 

The World Health Organisation said Sunday that damage to the station had increased the risk of infectious diseases.

Even before the northeast became Syria’s newest front line, the WHO said in a Sunday statement that acute diarrhoea and typhoid were a problem in northeast Syria: “Ongoing displacements, overcrowded living conditions, and limited access to safe water and sanitation services will likely lead to an increase in the number of people affected by water-borne diseases.”

A humanitarian source familiar with the situation on the ground told TNH that repairs were believed to be underway on Monday at the Ras al-Ayn station. They asked to remain anonymous because they were not authorised to speak to the media.

Hassan, in Hassakeh, said he was still concerned about a shortage of clean water. He noted that schools and other buildings had been converted to shelters almost overnight, so they didn’t necessarily have enough toilets or showers for the people staying in them.

Camp concerns

In addition to entering Tel Tamer, Syrian troops also reportedly headed into Ayn Issa in Raqqa province Monday, where shelling the day before hit a camp that had been home to some 13,000 people.

The SDF and local officials said hundreds of women and children affiliated with IS had escaped the camp, although neither the number nor the exact circumstances of what happened could be confirmed.

Save the Children said there had been 249 women and 700 children in an “annex” of the camp for people linked to IS and warned – in a Sunday statement – that “children of foreign nationals could now be lost in the chaos.”

Kush said on Monday that Save the Children had confirmed that a group of unaccompanied foreign children from the camp – believed to be orphans with at least one non-Iraqi or Syrian parent affiliated with IS – had been relocated to Raqqa. She said she had no further information about their whereabouts or wellbeing. On Sunday, OCHA said its partners had reported that “27 unaccompanied minors at the camp were safely evacuated” to Raqqa.

“We are urgently calling on governments to repatriate their citizens,” Kush added.

Additional reporting by Kawther Hamo

sb/as/ag

(TOP PHOTO: Syrian Arab and Kurdish civilians flee Turkish bombardment in Syria's northeastern border town of Ras al-Ayn, 9 October 2019.)

‘I can see tears in their eyes and feel fear in their hearts.’ In northeast Syria, a civilian exodus and a fast-moving aid response Sofia Barbarani News Conflict Politics and Economics ERBIL Iraq IRIN Middle East and North Africa Syria Turkey Conflict
Categories: Middle East

Ten donors and 10 crises dominate humanitarian spending

IRIN - Middle East - Wed, 09/10/2019 - 4:01pm

International money for emergency relief flattened off last year, even as appeals for donor funding rose to new highs. New data shows that funding in 2018 reached $28.9 billion, about the same as 2017, but the number of people needing help climbed to a record 206.4 million.

The 2019 edition of the Global Humanitarian Assistance report, prepared by UK-based research NGO Development Initiatives, tells a familiar tale of the dominance of big donors and big crises: 10 severe crises consumed about 63 percent of the funding. And the same consistent small group of donors paid the overwhelming majority of the bill for the world’s international crisis response. Nine countries, plus the European Commission, accounted for 81 percent of 2018’s official funding. 

Compared to 2017, the United States, Germany, and the UK spent $1.06 billion less in 2018. Large increases in donations from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (mainly for relief in Yemen) compensated in part for those reductions. 

But while the geography of humanitarian aid may not have changed markedly, the nature of some of that assistance has.

The wider use of cash (money transfers) is one of the major policy changes the sector has adopted since the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016. Aid delivered in the form of cash and vouchers, which can substitute for delivering physical goods like food and allow recipients to buy more locally, reached record levels in 2018, growing 10 percent year-on-year to $4.7 billion.

However, little change in other areas – such as localisation and longer-term funding that allows planning beyond a one-year horizon – led the analyst behind the GHA report to say, “the transformation so desperately needed in crisis financing is not yet happening.”

The latest figures for localisation – the intention to put more funds directly into the hands of locally based agencies and organisations – have budged, but only a little. Direct allocations have crept up to 3.1 percent of all spending (from two percent in 2016). Most of that went to national governments in affected countries. Funding to local and national NGOs stands at just 0.4 percent of the total. 

The Global Humanitarian Assistance report tallies annual humanitarian funding for disasters and refugees, as well as long-running conflict situations and other persistent crises. It compiles data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the UN, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and large NGOs. Domestic efforts, family remittances, informal support, and national governmental spending are not captured. 

Here are this year’s figures compared to previous years in a series of charts. 

 

Who gives?

 

 

 

Where does it go?

Over recent years, Syria and Yemen have come to the top of the spending tables.

 

The following overview of $190 billion of spending from 2000 to 2017 shows the ups and downs of countries facing some of the world’s worst conflicts or disasters.

Both this table and the pie chart above show funds allocated to a specific country – other funds deployed globally or by region or theme are excluded.

Who spends it?

The relative spending power of the main actors in humanitarian enterprise has remained static. The UN receives about half of the traceable international spending, and a large array of NGOs gets another third. These proportions have not changed for almost 20 years.

 

(TOP PHOTO: A refugee counts a cash allowance in Ethiopia.)

bp/ag

 

‘The transformation so desperately needed in crisis financing is not yet happening.’ Humanitarian spending in 2018 Ben Parker Maps and Graphics Aid and Policy Politics and Economics GENEVA The New Humanitarian Africa Asia Europe Global Middle East and North Africa Syria Yemen Swiss DOI aid policy Aid and Policy
Categories: Middle East

Syria-Turkey briefing: The fallout of an invasion for civilians

IRIN - Middle East - Tue, 08/10/2019 - 6:14pm

Humanitarians are warning that a Turkish invasion in northeast Syria could force hundreds of thousands of people to flee their homes, as confusion reigns over its possible timing, scope, and consequences.

Panos Moumtzis, the UN’s regional humanitarian coordinator for Syria, told reporters in Geneva on Monday that any military operation must guard against causing further displacement. “We are hoping for the best but preparing for the worst,” he said, noting that an estimated 1.7 million people live in the country’s northeast. 

Some residents close to the Syria-Turkey border are already leaving, one aid worker familiar with the situation on the ground told The New Humanitarian. Most are staying with relatives in nearby villages for the time-being, said the aid worker, who asked to remain anonymous in order to continue their work. 

The number of people who have left their homes so far remains relatively small, the aid worker said, but added: “If there is an incursion, people will leave.”

The International Rescue Committee said “a military offensive could immediately displace at least 300,000 people”, but analysts TNH spoke to cautioned that the actual number would depend on Turkey’s plans, which remain a major unknown.

As the diplomatic and security communities struggle to get a handle on what’s next, the same goes for humanitarians in northeastern Syria – and the communities they are trying to serve.

Here’s what we know, and what we don’t:

What just happened?

Late on Sunday night, the White House said that following a phone call with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, “Turkey will soon be moving forward with its long-planned operation into Northern Syria,” adding that US soldiers would not be part of the move, and “will no longer be in the immediate area”.

The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) – the Syrian-Kurdish-led militia that until now had been supported by the United States and played a major role in wresting territory back from the so-called Islamic State (IS) group in Syria – vowed to stand its ground in the northeast.

An SDF spokesperson tweeted that the group “will not hesitate to turn any unprovoked attack by Turkey into an all-out war on the entire border to DEFEND ourselves and our people”.

Leading Republicans in the US Congress criticised President Donald Trump’s decision, saying it represents an abandonment of Kurdish allies in Syria, and the Pentagon appeared both caught off-guard and opposed to a Turkish incursion

Since then, Trump has tweeted extensively on the subject, threatening to “totally destroy and obliterate the economy of Turkey” if the country does anything he considers to be “off limits”.

On the ground, US troops have moved out of two key observation posts on the Turkey-Syria border, in relatively small numbers: estimates range from 50 to 150 of the total who would have been shifted, out of around 1,000 US soldiers in the country.

What is Turkey doing?

Erdogan has long had his sights on a “safe zone” inside Syria, which he has said could eventually become home to as many as three million Syrian refugees, currently in Turkey.

Turkish Interior Minister Süleyman Soylu said in August that only 17 percent of Turkey’s estimated 3.6 million Syrian refugees come from the northeast of the country, which is administered by the SDF and its political wing.

Turkish and US forces began joint patrols of a small stretch of the border early last month. While Turkey began calling the area a “safe zone”, the United States referred to it as a “security mechanism”. The terms of the deal were either never made public or not hammered out.

In addition to any desire to resettle refugees, which might only be a secondary motive, Turkey wants control of northeast Syria to rein in the power of the SDF, which it considers to be a terrorist organisation.

One of the SDF’s main constituent parts are People’s Defense Units – known by their Kurdish acronym YPG.

The YPG are an offshoot of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or PKK – a Turkey-based Kurdish separatist organisation that has conducted an insurgency against the Turkish government for decades, leading to a bloody crackdown

While rebels fight for the northwest, and Russian-backed Syrian government forces control most of the rest of Syria, the SDF currently rules over almost all of Hassakeh province, most of Raqqa and Deir Ezzor provinces, and a small part of Aleppo province. 

How many civilians are at risk?

There has not been a census in Syria for years, and numbers shift quickly as people flee different pockets of conflict. This makes estimating the number of civilians in northeast Syria very difficult.

The IRC said in its statement it is “deeply concerned about the lives and livelihoods of the two million civilians in northeast Syria”; Moumtzis mentioned 1.7 million people; and Save the Children said “there are 1.65 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in this area, including more than 650,000 displaced by war”.

Of those who have had to leave their homes in Raqqa, Deir Ezzor, and Hassakeh, only 100,000 are living in camps, according to figures from the International Committee of the Red Cross. Others rent houses or apartments, and some live in unfinished buildings or tents.

“While many commentators are rightly focusing on the security implications of this policy reversal, the humanitarian implications will be equally enormous,” said Jeremy Konyndyk, senior policy fellow at the Center for Global Development, and a former high-ranking Obama administration aid official.

“All across Northern Syria, hundreds of thousands of displaced and conflict-affected people who survived the horrors of the… [IS] era will now face the risk of new violence between Turkish and SDF forces.”

Who will be first in the firing line?

It’s unlikely all of northeast Syria would be impacted by a Turkish invasion right away, given that so far the United States has only moved its troops away from two border posts, at Tel Abyad (Kurdish name: Gire Spi), and roughly 100 kilometres to the east, at Ras al-Ayn (Kurdish name: Serê Kaniyê). 

Depending on how far into Syria one is counting, aid workers estimate there are between 52,000 to 68,000 people in this 100-kilometre strip, including the towns of Tel Abyad and Ras al-Ayn themselves. The aid worker in northeast Syria told TNH that if there is an offensive, these people are more likely, at least initially, to stay with family or friends in nearby villages than to end up in camps.

The aid worker added that while humanitarian operations from more than 70 NGOs are ongoing across the northeast, including in places like Tel Abyad, some locals are avoiding the town itself and, in general, people are “extremely worried”.

What will happen to al-Hol camp?

The fate of the rest of northeast Syria’s population may also be at risk.

Trump tweeted on Monday that the Kurds “must, with Europe and others, watch over the captured ISIS fighters and families”.

The SDF currently administers al-Hol, a tense camp of more than 68,000 people – mostly women and children – deep in Hassakeh province, where the World Health Organisation recently said people are living “in harsh and deplorable conditions, with limited access to quality basic services, sub-optimal environment and concerns of insecurity.”

Many of the residents of al-Hol stayed with IS through its last days in Syria, and the camp holds both these supporters and people who fled the group earlier on.

Last week, Médecins Sans Frontières said security forces shot at women protesting in a part of the camp known as “the annex”, which holds around 10,000 who are not Syrian or Iraqi.

The SDF also holds more than 10,000 IS detainees in other prisons, and the possible release of these people – plus those at al-Hol – may become a useful bargaining chip for the Kurdish-led group.

On Monday, an SDF commander said guarding the prisoners had become a “second priority” in the wake of a possible Turkish offensive.

"All their families are located in the border area," General Mazloum Kobani Abdi told NBC News of the SDF fighters who had been guarding the prisoners. "So they are forced to defend their families."

(TOP PHOTO: Syrian Kurds demonstrate against threats of a Turkish invasion on the outskirts of Ras al-Ayn, on 6 October 2019.)

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‘We are hoping for the best but preparing for the worst.’ Syria-Turkey briefing: The fallout of an invasion for civilians Annie Slemrod News Conflict Politics and Economics TNH United States Middle East and North Africa Syria Turkey Conflict Turkey Syria Kurds military safe zone
Categories: Middle East

Roundup: Yemen’s war rattles on, a year after Khashoggi killing

IRIN - Middle East - Fri, 04/10/2019 - 2:32pm

One year since the killing of dissident Saudi writer Jamal Khashoggi set off heightened scrutiny on the kingdom’s role in the war in Yemen, the conflict is still raging, and millions of civilians are caught in the middle.

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Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, Saudi Arabia’s de facto ruler, said in an interview broadcast this week that he accepts “all the responsibility” for Khashoggi’s death, but denied ordering the killing or having prior knowledge of the operation.

Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates lead an increasingly fractured coalition that backs the Yemeni government of President Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi, which has been fighting Houthi rebels since March 2015. According to The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), nearly 100,000 people have been reported killed throughout the course of the war, including 12,165 civilian deaths “from direct targeting”.

Earlier this week, Houthi rebels released 290 detainees, but large-scale peace efforts largely remain stalled, and fighting has increased on several key front lines. Last week alone at least 22 civilians were killed in airstrikes, and tensions between Saudi Arabia and the Houthis ratcheted up after a 14 September attack on oil plants in the kingdom; the Houthis claimed responsibility, but Saudi Arabia has pointed the finger at Iran, which supports the rebels.

Meanwhile, large-scale famine in Yemen appears to have been averted — at least for now — but the US-funded famine monitor FEWS NET warns that “increased levels of conflict are expected to restrict humanitarian access” in some parts of the country, and some 17 million Yemenis need immediate humanitarian assistance.

Here’s a selection of some of our recent reporting on Yemen:

yemen-malnutrition-photo-1.jpg In Yemen, one nurse’s fight against hunger

Famine warnings may have receded, but the war still continues in Yemen and children are still starving to death.

yemen-photo-idps-salama-yahya.jpg In Taiz, some Yemenis choose war – and home – over displacement

Some of the 3.6 million displaced Yemenis are betting that despite ongoing fighting, life will be better back home.

photo-yemen-displaced-camp.jpg Opinion | In Yemen’s internationalised war, it’s time to give local peacemakers the floor

Yemen’s complexity is an asset, not an impediment, to peacebuilding.

Marib Yemen 3 The unlikely diplomat bringing Yemen’s war dead home

In a war that has killed tens of thousands, meet the former boy scout and community activist turned body collector.

fingerprintimage.jpg Head to head: Biometrics and aid

How should iris scans, fingerprints, and photos be used to get help to people who need it? It depends who you ask. 

Yemen malnutrition UNICEF 3 Deaths before data

Weighing whether famine will be declared in Yemen, as fighting intensifies and peace talks are delayed.

(TOP PHOTO: Yemeni prisoners wait to be released by Houthi rebels in Sana'a, on 30 September 2019.)

Roundup: Yemen’s war rattles on, a year after Khashoggi killing News Conflict Politics and Economics IRIN Middle East and North Africa Saudi Arabia Yemen Conflict
Categories: Middle East

‘We’re staying’: The doctors refusing to flee Idlib’s deadly front line

IRIN - Middle East - Mon, 30/09/2019 - 10:06am

The blood forms pools on the floor of a whitewashed operating room. Two men pose for a photo with their table of metal instruments, unable to smile.

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It’s late at night after a long day of airstrikes on Syria’s northwestern Idlib province. The two doctors have been operating on the wounded for hours.

“This is from a day where we were working from early morning until late at night, treating injuries,” said Dr. Haitham Diab, who sent The New Humanitarian the August photograph via WhatsApp.

Diab is a surgeon in one of the few hospitals close to the front lines in Idlib that is still operational. He said it was hit by an airstrike in July, but the damage was minor.

In another photo, Diab can be seen crouched down in a corner of the hospital in a set of wrinkled green scrubs, exhausted. Packages of medicine, gauze, and other supplies lie stacked on metal shelves to his side. 

Diab is among the healthcare workers still doing their job in the midst of a four-month air, artillery, and land campaign waged by Syrian government and allied Russian forces in and around rebel-held Idlib – areas home to an estimated four million people

Despite the dangers, many doctors are working under fire with limited supplies, even as more patients need help.

At the peak of the bombing last month in the southern part of Idlib where he works, Diab said the hospital’s 20 doctors were performing some 40 emergency operations every day. (The New Humanitarian is not publishing the exact location of hospitals mentioned in this report, at the request of the staff still working in them.)

Civilians and civilian infrastructure, including hospitals and health clinics, have been hit hard by the offensive, which Syrian officials have said is a fight against “terrorists” in Idlib. Russia’s UN envoy, Vasily Nebenzya, has called many reports of bomb attacks on hospitals “fake”, according to Russian state news agency TASS. 

The UN says 400,000 people have had to flee since late April, either to escape violence or to “access services essential to survive”. As of early September, the UN’s human rights office said it had verified the killing of 1,089 civilians (among them 304 children) since 29 April – 94 percent of them killed by pro-government forces.  

The offensive, which has faced stiff resistance from rebels, marked the end of a Turkish-Russian deal reached last September that was meant to stave off an all-out assault by pro-government forces to retake Idlib, which is largely controlled by an extremist group defined as terrorist by the UN.

Reduced to rubble

Several doctors said the places where they work have been bombed, including the hospital where Diab operates alongside Shaker al-Hamido.

After an airstrike hit just outside their house several months ago, al-Hamido, a doctor from southern Idlib, said he sent his wife and toddler-aged children north to the Syrian-Turkish border so they could stay somewhere safer.

“Of course I’m afraid,” he said, but he continues to live and work in the area.

Among the bombed hospitals are those that voluntarily registered their coordinates with a UN-run no-strike list, which was shared with Russia, Turkey, and the United States as part of a deconfliction mechanism supposed to prevent such facilities from being targeted. 

Al-Hamido and Diab said their hospital had shared its location with the UN.

Read more → What is humanitarian deconfliction?

The UN says a total of 51 medical facilities – such as hospitals, ambulance points and clinics – have been damaged as a result of attacks since the offensive began.

At least 14 sites hit by the end of July had shared their coordinates as part of the UN mechanism, according to a tally provided by the Syrian American Medical Society, or SAMS, a US-based group that supports medical facilities in rebel-held areas in Syria.

Eleven of those sites match incidents recorded by the Armed Conflict and Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), a group that monitors and maps conflict. 

The UN’s emergency aid coordination body, OCHA, which runs the deconfliction system, declined to verify the detailed listings, saying the parties to the conflict were responsible for their conduct under international humanitarian law (IHL) and investigating violations. 

Civilian infrastructure, and medical facilities in particular, enjoy special protection under IHL regardless of whether or not they were “deconflicted”.

Attacks on healthcare in northwestern Syria – April-September 2019

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HOW THE MAP WORKS: Medical sites damaged in the fighting since April 2019 – by any party to the conflict – are marked in green.

The source of the damage data is ACLED, which recently began including details of attacks on health facilities as part of its database on conflict in Syria.

From 27 April to 15 September 2019, ACLED’s latest information, shared with TNH ahead of public release this week, records 69 incidents affecting health workers and patients in northwestern Syria, mainly aerial bombing and shelling by Syrian government and allied Russian forces. 

The Syrian American Medical Society has provided a partial list of strikes on sites whose coordinates were on the UN’s no-strike (or “deconfliction”) list through the end of July.

TNH has found 11 incidents that match the two listings. These are in the locations marked with red dots. Hover or click on the dots to read details.

Among the hospitals bombed out of service this year was one situated outside Ma'arat al-Nu'man, a town in southern Idlib province. Wassel Aljork, a general surgeon, treated patients there until an airstrike hit it several months ago. 

The hospital, which once served more than 100,000 residents of the surrounding countryside, according to Aljork, is now a pile of rubble. 

When he and other doctors went to survey the wreckage, they found that none of their equipment could be salvaged.

After the bombing, Aljork left his nearby hometown, where he ran a makeshift clinic out of his house, and headed north. He now works in a hospital near the border with Turkey, where hundreds of thousands of people have fled in search of safety. 

The UN announced earlier this month that it would launch an investigation into attacks on hospitals and other civilian sites, although some doubt how effective it can be. 

“An investigation won’t stop the attacks, but at least it might put some pressure,” says Mohamad Katoub, a doctor and spokesperson for SAMS. The organisation supports some 43 healthcare facilities in Idlib province, according to its website. “We have many concerns about the safety of our medical staff,” he added.

Some facilities have been built to survive bombardment. Dr. Ahmad al-Bayoush, who specialises in internal medicine, spoke with TNH earlier this month as missiles flew overhead. His hospital was moved underground, he explained, to protect it from the bombs. 

Still, the hospital has been hit once already and al-Bayoush worries it could happen again: “The missiles are still flying over us,” he said.

‘The psychological pressure is going to kill us’

Those who fled north leave behind dozens of ghost towns in their wake, according to a report published in May by REACH, an organisation that analyses humanitarian data. 

But civilians are still living in southern Idlib; mostly people too poor to afford the cost of transportation out of the area.

And doctors are running low on supplies to treat them, including some basic medicines like antibiotic creams. “There’s a lot we’re running out of, for surgeries [and] for medical exams,” said Diab. “We’re just working with what we’ve got.”

The shortages can be deadly. Last month, a man arrived in the operating room having lost his legs in an airstrike. His stomach had been torn open by the blast.

“We didn’t have enough blood on hand to give him,” said Diab, recalling how the patient died while his wife and children were outside the room. “They were waiting to hear any good news,” he said.

Al-Hamido said the scale of patients’ injuries is so severe there is often little he can do to save them, even when supplies are on hand.

One patient sticks in his mind in particular: a pregnant mother who arrived in the operating room in May, after a bomb left her head riddled with shrapnel. The wounds were too deep to save the mother, so al-Hamido and other staff performed a Caesarean section on her in an attempt to save the baby. Despite their efforts, both the mother and child died soon after. 

“I couldn’t save anyone,” al-Hamido said. “I sat down and cried like a child.” 

“This psychological pressure – it’s going to kill us,” he said. 

As pro-government forces continue bombing the area, he and others say they fear what could be in store for southern Idlib, where they work.

Last month, the Syrian army took the city of Khan Sheikhoun, along a key highway in to the south in Idlib, and doctors worry about their fate if there is a further advance northwards.

They fear further bombs on their hospitals, but also possible government arrest.

Late one night, after a shift at the hospital, Diab told TNH he was determined to stay, regardless.

“What else can we do? There is a lot of bombing still happening,” he said. “We’re staying here. As long as there are still people [getting injured], we’ll continue working.”

(TOP PHOTO: A health centre at al-Zerbeh in southern Aleppo after an airstrike on 30 August 2019.)

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‘I sat down and cried like a child.’ ‘We’re staying’: The doctors refusing to flee Idlib’s deadly front line Madeline Edwards News feature Conflict Health AMMAN IRIN Middle East and North Africa Syria Conflict
Categories: Middle East

Iraq’s Kirkuk: Oil deals, ethnic divides, and Kurdish grievances

IRIN - Middle East - Thu, 26/09/2019 - 4:09pm

Oil-rich Kirkuk in northern Iraq is a province everyone wants. That’s apparent in the passionate language Kurdish commanders use when talking about winning it back.

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“We will never accept Kurdistan without Kirkuk. We fought a lot for it in the past and we’ll never give up,” said Sheikh Jafar Mustafa, who commands a unit of the Kurdistan Regional Government’s military force, the Peshmerga, from his HQ in the city of Sulaymaniyah.

But in September 2017, two weeks after Iraqi Kurds voted a massive ‘yes’ to independence in a controversial referendum, the central Iraqi government swiftly seized control of Kirkuk – a lucrative revenue stream for the KRG – as well as other disputed areas.

The fate of the “disputed territories”, particularly Kirkuk, remains hotly contested. Kurdish commanders are adamant that Kirkuk is Kurdish and should be part of a future Kurdistan, the Iraqi side insists it should not, while long-marginalised communities are stuck in the middle.

Kurdish officials or commanders talking about retaking Kirkuk are living in a dream world, said Iraqi army Major General Sa’ad Harbia, speaking gently but firmly inside a sprawling Kirkuk military base. “Even if they see stars in the afternoon sky, they will not return to Kirkuk,” Harbia told The New Humanitarian, using a popular Iraqi idiom.

Shortly after Iraqi forces retook Kirkuk, many Kurdish families – the UN said “well over 100,000 civilians” by 21 October 2017 – took flight, fearing sectarian violence. Many returned soon after, but more than 99,700 people are still displaced in the wider province – including those forced from their homes by the so-called Islamic State group or subsequent fighting.

iraqi-kurdistan-map.jpg

The Peshmerga commander, Mustafa, who refers to Kirkuk as “occupied Kurdistan”, blames sporadic terrorist attacks in the area on Baghdad’s failure to adequately secure the city from fighters loyal to IS, which holds no territory in Iraq but is still a threat. There have been scattered attacks by the remnants of IS in and around Kirkuk, including six explosions in one day during this year’s Ramadan.

Harbia heads Kirkuk’s Joint Operations Command, which includes forces from the Iraqi army, federal police, security forces, as well as the Popular Mobilisation Forces (the Hashd al-Shaabi), or PMF. It does not currently include the Peshmerga. He said his forces were working hard to restore security in the area, and had captured more than 120 members of IS since he took up the role in February.

Harbia said he had no problem with a four-governorate Iraqi Kurdistan, which excludes the disputed territories. “They’re not our enemy,” he said of the Kurds. “In the end, they are Iraqi like us.”

Ethnic differences

In addition to keeping Kirkuk safe, Harbia said one of his priorities was promoting good relations between the Iraqi army and civilians. “There are many ethnicities in Kirkuk and we treat them all the same,” he said.

But the Kurds and Kirkuk’s many minority groups – including Turkmen, Arabs, and Christians – have differing views on what the shift in power from the KRG to the central Iraqi government since 2017 has meant for their daily lives.

While some Kurdish politicians and citizens speak openly against the power transfer, Mohamed, a 25-year-old Kurdish translator whose father is a senior member of the Kirkuk police, said not much had changed for Kurds like him.

Mohamed, who preferred to give only his first name because he feared possible repercussions of speaking to the media, said life had largely settled back to normal in Kirkuk, and “now it feels the same as when it was run by the KRG.

Read more → In Iraqi Kurdistan, reality bites as independence dream fades

“As a Kurd, of course I’d prefer it if the Kurdish government was in charge, but the Iraqi forces are not making any problems for us, so we can’t say it’s bad,” he added.

Several Turkmen – Iraq’s third largest ethnicity after Arabs and Kurds – told TNH that this felt like their chance to take their rightful place in society after years of marginalisation, first under Saddam Hussein, who ruled Iraq until 2003, and then under the KRG.

“Before, there were many Kurdish militias who treated Arabs and Turkmen very badly, said Arab-Turkmen engineer Ahmed, who also asked that only his first name be published. “For over a decade, there was no development in Kirkuk and all senior positions and contracts were given to Kurds.”

Riyaz Sarikahya, head of Iraq’s largest Turkmen political party, Turkmenali, also criticised the Peshmerga for giving Kurds preferential treatment, although he stressed that his disapproval was of the security establishment, not the Kurdish people. “The Kurds are our friends and we have no problem with them as colleagues in the political sphere, but we don’t want them working in security,” he said.

Sarikahya said Kirkuk’s Turkmen are still underrepresented in positions of power, although this may in part be because the Turkmen community has struggled to unite, being politically divided into seven main parties.

A more critical fault line running through its mixed Sunni-Shia community dates back to 2014, when some Sunni Turkmen joined IS and led the persecution of their Shia neighbours.

Beyond Kirkuk, ongoing neglect

Baghdad showed its commitment to keeping Kirkuk by swiftly reclaiming the income from its oil fields, some of the largest in the Middle East.

Within days of taking the city, British oil and gas firm BP was back in talks with a state-run oil company about a stalled agreement, and they inked a new deal this year intended to more than double production.

Work has also started on regenerating Kirkuk’s military airbase, converting one section into a civilian airport – a project expected to reduce residents’ reliance on airports in the KRG or on arduous overland travel from Baghdad.

a_giant_peshmerga_statue_on_bthe_kirkuk-erbil_road_completed_shortly_before_te_2017_referendum_now_flies_the_iraqi_not_kurdish_flag_3.jpg Tom Westcott/TNH A Peshmerga statue on the Kirkuk-Erbil road, completed shortly before the 2017 referendum, now flies the Iraqi, rather than Kurdish, flag.

But while Kirkuk city has benefited from investment from Baghdad, residents and officials of outlying towns told TNH they continue to be overlooked, even with the change of power.

Strategically located on the main Kirkuk-Erbil highway, officials in the Turkmen town of Altun Koprey (called Perde by Kurds) say they are still waiting for investment they were promised.

City councillor Modher Anwer Taher said the Baghdad takeover had meant “more freedom” for Turkmen like himself. Mayor Abdul Najmadeen Orjlou-Salahe agreed. “Since the [Kurdish] political parties left, we’ve been left in peace,” he said. “Turkmen and Kurds are working side by side, like brothers.”

But what the town really needs, Orjlou-Salahe said, is funding from Bahdad.

While Altun Koprey recently had its intermittent electricity supply boosted to 18 hours a day – after an Iranian company repaired a nearby electrical station – the mayor said it urgently needed money to improve crumbling infrastructure and support agriculture, the lifeline of the local economy.

“We need everything,” he said. “Schools, a better hospital, new roads, and farmers: they all urgently need support.”

Read the first instalment of this series:In Iraqi Kurdistan, reality bites as independence dream fades

(TOP PHOTO: Some Kurdish flags were defaced by Iraqi forces advancing towards Kirkuk in October 2017.)

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‘We will never accept Kurdistan without Kirkuk. We’ll never give up.’ Iraq’s Kirkuk: Oil deals, ethnic divides, and Kurdish grievances Tom Westcott Special Report Conflict Politics and Economics Second in a <a href="https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/special-report/2019/09/26/Iraq-Kurdistan-independence-Peshmerga">two-part series</a> exploring how the Kurdish region of northern Iraq has evolved since Kurds voted overwhelmingly for independence in 2017. KIRKUK Iraq IRIN Middle East and North Africa Iraq Politics and Economics
Categories: Middle East

In Iraqi Kurdistan, reality bites as independence dream fades

IRIN - Middle East - Thu, 26/09/2019 - 4:03pm

Two years ago, Iraqi Kurds overwhelmingly voted ‘yes’ in a landmark independence referendum. But the bid was carried out against the wishes of Iraq’s central government, neighbouring countries, and most of the international community.

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Instead of ushering in nascent independence, the referendum resulted in the semi-autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government losing most of the areas in the north also claimed by the Iraqi government – some 40 percent of the KRG’s territory.

Baghdad’s tough reaction to the 25 September 2017 vote, and the subsequent economic downturn, have dealt Kurdish nationalism a serious blow.

For now, the elusive Kurdish state – so tantalisingly within reach two years ago – has resumed the status of a more distant future hope and dream. And for most Iraqi Kurds, it must take a back seat to the more pressing need of putting food on the family table.

Iraq as a whole is still emerging, slowly, from several years of foreign occupation and fighting against so-called Islamic State.

But the fact that nearly 57 percent of the 1.2 million people still displaced from the war live in the KRG’s four remaining undisputed governorates is an indication of the oversized burden the north, and the Iraqi Kurds, had to bear.

After the vote, the KRG’s economy took a nosedive, as land borders were temporarily closed and businesses struggled to import and export goods.

“The financial situation was not good even before the referendum because the budget had already stopped,” said Khazem Farouq, from the New Generation Party, which holds eight seats in the KRG parliament. “The economy, job opportunities, and construction projects were already frozen but, once the referendum took place, the financial situation worsened.”

Even though the economy is starting to rebound, unemployment remains high and the pre-vote optimism once felt across Kurdish parts of northern Iraq has faded.

Where the red, white, and green stripes of the Kurdish flag – with its central yellow sun – were ubiquitous two years ago in areas of KRG control, these days the banner flutters mainly over checkpoints and government institutions.

In 2017, some dreamed independence might be the reward for the hefty price Kurds paid in defeating IS. But for many, especially young people struggling to enter the job market, the referendum now feels like an unnecessary distraction.

“The Kurdish flag used to be something really important – we even have a Kurdish flag day,” said Sanger, a 25-year-old who has had trouble finding work in the KRG-run city of Sulaymaniyah since graduating with a degree in civil engineering.

For Sanger, the two main political parties in the region – the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan – have both failed to improve basic infrastructure or support young Kurds with job opportunities.

“[The flag is] still important, but not like before,” he said. “It’s like this across Kurdistan. The Kurdish parties made us not believe in the flag anymore.”

kurdish-farmer.jpg Tom Westcott/TNH Kurdish herder Haji Antdar says his business took a hit after the vote but has since rebounded. He wishes the KRG provided more support for farmers but still supports independence: “It would be much better for us to be governed by a Kurd than an Arab." Disputed territories

In the run-up to the vote, Iraq’s then-prime minister, Haider al-Abadi, threatened that holding the referendum would have serious consequences.

But the KRG’s president at the time, Masoud Barzani, insisted the Kurds had a right to self-determination, even though the vote was non-binding. “We have our geography, land, and culture,” he said in 2017. “We have our own language. We refuse to be subordinates.”

After the vote, which saw a reported 72 percent turnout and 92 percent support for independence, Baghdad mobilised its troops, ordering a ban on flights in and out of KRG airports (since lifted), and took control of most of the “disputed territories”.

The KRG had controlled much of this territory – including the predominantly Yazidi area of Sinjar and multi-ethnic and oil-rich Kirkuk province – since Saddam Hussein’s fall in 2003, expanding its reach as its military forces, the Peshmerga, joined the fight against IS in 2014.

Today, most of this disputed land remains in the hands of the central government, even though Kurdish officials insist they will fight to get it back.

iraqi-kurdistan-map.jpg

Sheikh Jafar Mustafa, who commands a Peshmerga unit based in Sulaymaniyah, told The New Humanitarian it’s “not about the Kirkuk oil but the fact that Kirkuk is a Kurdish city and must stay part of Kurdistan”.

Iraqi officials, whose security forces now patrol Kirkuk and its oil fields, say they have no intention of handing anything back to the KRG.

As for those who live there – including many long-marginalised minority groups like Turkmen, Yazidis, and Christians – the response to the shift in power has been mixed.

Ahmed, an Arab-Turkmen engineer in Kirkuk who asked that only his first name be published, told TNH that things had generally improved since the change of power weeks after the referendum.

“Before,” he said, “there were many Kurdish militias who treated Arabs and Turkmen very badly,” adding that Kurdish leaders had also given preferential treatment to Kurdish officials and businesses.

But Riyaz Sarikahya, the head of Turkmenali, Iraq’s largest Turkmen political party, said history – to some extent – was repeating itself. “Already many leadership positions in Kirkuk have been taken by Arabs,” he said. “Marginalisation is happening again.”

Read more → Iraq’s Kirkuk: Oil deals, ethnic divides, and Kurdish grievances

And, in Sinjar – a rural part of Nineveh province made infamous by 2014 IS attacks on the Yazidi minority there – residents say they still haven’t seen enough reconstruction help from Baghdad, following years of neglect by the KRG government.

Most Yazidis, who were always divided on the independence question, have not returned to Sinjar after fleeing the extremist group. Some say they are kept away by a lack of jobs, resources, and basic infrastructure; others cite fear as the reason.

Read more → Uptick in suicides signals deepening mental health crisis for Iraq’s Yazidis

Haider Shesho, commander of the Ezidkhan Forces – a Yazidi branch of the Peshmerga – has some sympathy for this point of view, saying there are multiple power structures in Sinjar, including one Baghdad-appointed mayor in town and a second one in exile.

“Services for ordinary people cannot properly be brought back under these conditions and, without services, people cannot return,” Shesho said. “There are multiple different security forces operating here. They don’t coordinate, and run different checkpoints, which also makes people very afraid of returning.”

Flagging economy

As well as losing a large chunk of its territory, the KRG lost one crucial revenue source after the vote: Kirkuk’s lucrative oil fields.

The territory’s economy has long been dependent on oil sales and its 17 percent share of Iraq’s national budget. The latter has been on hold since 2013 because the KRG refused to hand over revenue from independently-brokered oil export deals, many of which go through a pipeline to Turkey that was completed in 2014.

The Baghdad-Erbil relationship has since improved. The Iraqi government has now resumed paying Erbil a reduced 12.67 percent share of Iraq’s budget – including funds to pay civil servants – on the condition that the KRG send 250,000 barrels of oil per day.

But the KRG has not yet fulfilled its part of the deal.

KRG spokesman Jutyar Adil said in August that it was prepared to hand over the oil but that the value of the amount slashed from its budget far exceeded this. He added that negotiations were ongoing with Baghdad.

For some in the business community, like Majid Suliman Ismael, director of plastic materials company Dilnal, based in the KRG city of Zakho, things are getting better.

kurdish_peshmerga_statues_in_the_mddle_of_the_highway_leadng_to_the_town_of_zakho.jpg Tom Westcott/TNH Peshmerga statues in the middle of the highway leading to the KRG city of Zakho.

“The situation is starting to improve now, and construction projects are restarting,” Suliman said.

Not so, however, for Samir, who has a shop near Erbil’s old citadel, and preferred his last name not be published. He said buying new stock from southern Iraq was harder than it had been before the vote, and though business had picked up somewhat since then, it was not enough.

Standing in front of shelves piled high with the Kurdistan mementoes he sells – most featuring the striped flag with its central sun – he said the referendum “was our right and our destiny, but the timing was really bad”.

Although he believed the result had taken the Kurds back to a similar position as they were in the 1990s, Samir remained “hopeful and optimistic” that, in the future, “there will be an independent Kurdistan”.

The dream of Kurdistan

People like Samir are not the only ones who retain some positivity about the referendum, despite the setbacks. Officials from the ruling Kurdish Democratic Party are adamant it was a success.

Major General Abubaker Ahmed Mohamed, director general of information at the Peshmerga Ministry in Erbil, said the vote was “very successful”, explaining: “It didn’t fail because of people’s votes but only because of the agendas of our neighbouring countries.”

He said the border closures and other punitive measures from Baghdad had been expected, and overall he described the vote as “a message from a Kurdish nation… that we deserve to be a country.

“The referendum doesn’t mean independence right away, but when the right time comes we can use it,” he said. “These votes will stay as a weapon for us that we can always use.”

Not everyone has that kind of hope.

The vote deepened Iraqi Kurdistan’s main two-party rivalry, a longstanding fault line running through the concept of Kurdish unity.

Lawyer and former KRG MP Talar Latif Mohamed, who stood against the vote because it was not legally binding, said it had also alienated international partners.

“Before, we had so many allies, including the UK and US, but, since the referendum – which they didn’t approve of or support – they’ve grown cold towards us, which has created tensions,” she said. “We’ve first focused on trying to fix things with Baghdad, and then we’ll try and fix things with our neighbouring countries.”

Ordinary Kurds still speak with determination and dignity about a future independent Kurdish state, even if the patriotic fervour that blossomed in the lead-up to the referendum is no longer around.

That may be especially true for Kurds from other countries who long lived (and fought) in Iraq, most of whom couldn’t vote in September 2017 but who believe in a Kurdistan that could someday include Kurds from across the region.

by_katharine_cooper._iranian_ex-pats_helo_remshti_36_and_his_wife_zohre_rostami_28_on_the_front_lines_against_is_in_2015.jpg Katharine Cooper/TNH Iranian Peshmerga Helo Remshti and Zohre Rostami on the front lines of the fight against IS in 2015. peshmerga-husband-wife.jpg Tom Westcott/TNH Now left in a precarious financial position, they say they still believe in an independent Kurdish state.

Helo Remshti, 36, and his wife Zohre Rostami, 28, are Iranian Kurds who spent 16 years with the Peshmerga. The last five years were on the front lines – often without payment – first against IS and then against Iraqi government forces when they came north.

Injured five times, including losing an arm, Remshti, a mine disposal expert, was surprised when the KRG did not pitch in to help him.

Now reduced to stacking shelves or other menial labour for a daily wage of 5,000-10,000 Iraqi dinar ($4.20-$8.40), Remshti is stateless and can’t return to his native Iran – a fate he shares with many other Kurds from neighbouring countries who came to fight for the Kurdish cause.

Remshti, now living in Erbil, is desperate to leave Kurdistan and make a life for his family in the West. But even so, he won’t let go of the dream of Kurdish independence.

“I still believe in the Kurdish cause and always will, even if I’m the last man standing,” he said. “I still believe, and in the future I will make my sons and grandsons fight for an independent Kurdistan.”

Read second instalment of this series: Iraq’s Kirkuk: Oil deals, ethnic divides, and Kurdish grievances

(TOP PHOTO: Before the referendum, Kurdish patriotism ran high and thousands attended a pro-independence rally in Erbil in September 2017.)

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‘The referendum was our right and our destiny. But the timing was really bad.’ In Iraqi Kurdistan, reality bites as independence dream fades Tom Westcott Special Report Conflict Politics and Economics First in a <a href="https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/special-report/2019/09/26/Iraq-Kirkuk-Oil-ethnic-divides-Kurdish-grievances">two-part series</a> exploring how the Kurdish region of northern Iraq has evolved since Kurds voted overwhelmingly for independence in 2017. ERBIL Iraq IRIN Middle East and North Africa Iraq Politics and Economics
Categories: Middle East