News aggregator

  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : Function ereg() is deprecated in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/file.inc on line 646.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.
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  • : preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /var/www/crtda.org.lb/includes/unicode.inc on line 311.

For Istanbul’s Syrians, a time of hoping and hiding

IRIN - Middle East - Tue, 20/08/2019 - 2:14pm

When Syrian refugees first arrived in Istanbul almost eight years ago, many made for Fatih, a district of historic mosques and concrete apartment blocks that has seen decades of migration. Tens of thousands more followed.

There, they worked and saved and set up businesses until the main boulevards glowed with the neon Arabic signage of shops and restaurants selling tastes of home – Damascus coffee, Aleppo spices, syrupy desserts. Fatih became both somewhere to live and somewhere Syrian residents from elsewhere would come to gossip, eat, and stock up.

On a recent day, though, the streets were quiet. “A month ago there would be no time for talking,” grumbled Abu Firas, the owner of a small, recently opened eatery. “Now look at it.”

It was lunchtime, but only a single family sat in the corner, finishing a platter of kebabs. With nothing else to do, the staff gazed at silent music videos on a wall-mounted flat-screen television or smoked cigarettes outside.

The customers, Abu Firas explained, were all hiding. And when his employees are not in the restaurant, they are too, he said.

Today, 20 August, marks an Interior Ministry-imposed deadline for all Syrians without the Istanbul-issued identity cards required to live and work in the city to leave. The ministry, as well as the city governor – appointed by the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) – has said anyone apprehended after that will be held and sent to other provinces.

“A month ago there would be no time for talking, now look at it.”

Detentions have already begun. Every two or three days over the past month, Abu Firas said, police officers conducted security sweeps in the area, looking for Syrians with the wrong documents – or no documents at all – to load onto buses headed out of the city or straight to the border.

This leaves most of the restaurant employees at risk, and, like Abu Firas, they all asked to be referred to by pseudonyms or their first names alone.

Hussein, the skinny young waiter, only has only his Syrian passport and no Turkish identification at all.

Hamid, the grey-haired manager, had his application denied when he tried to renew his Turkish ID, known as a temporary protection permit.

The permit of Mahmoud, the chef, was issued in the border province of Hatay along with the rest of his family’s, which means he is authorised to live only there.

When there’s an alarm – usually spread through a WhatsApp group set up by the managers of local restaurants – the employees scatter, making for a nearby abandoned building, the local mosque, or backstreets too narrow for buses. Sometimes, the customers flee with them.

After work, often around midnight, they go straight home. It’s a short walk for most of them, but they keep their gaze 50 metres ahead and escape routes in mind, careful not to be too conspicuous, too loud, or too obviously Arab. There they stay, even on days off, fearing the checkpoints that have appeared around public transport stations and on main roads.

One of the kitchen staff who lives further away told of taking a shared taxi instead of the metro, spending the entire journey watching the road, ready to jump out.

“Our struggle [in Turkey] used to be to survive and live and start businesses,” Hamid said. “Now, it’s avoiding the police.”

For the foreseeable future, this is how life will be, for them and many other Syrians.

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There are 547,000 Syrians registered in Istanbul, but the city’s new mayor, Ekrem Imamoğlu, has suggested the real figure is likely closer to one million; many registered in border provinces make their way north in hope of work.

Süleyman Soylu, Turkey’s interior minister, said in July that around 1,000 unregistered Syrians had been detained in Istanbul. He denied any had been deported.

According to Human Rights Watch, though, hundreds of Syrians have already been coerced into signing repatriation forms and deported to parts of Syria still wracked by conflict, in contravention of international law. Some were sent to Idlib province – the country’s last rebel stronghold, which is subject to intense Syrian government and Russian bombardment that local monitoring groups say has killed more than 800 civilians since late April.

Requests to the interior ministry for comment went unanswered by the time of publication.

‘Go back to your country’

It was not always like this. In 2011 and 2012, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and his ruling AKP welcomed Syrian “guests”.

Turkey now shelters around 3.6 million Syrian refugees, more than any other country. Authorities initially allowed many to travel and find work in the informal sector, while police officers would often overlook expired travel permits or IDs.

“I used to just show them my passport and there was no problem,” remembered Hussein, who arrived in 2015.

But as Turkey’s once strong economy slowed and inflation rose, Syrians became a target, accused by nationalists of taking Turkish jobs, filling places in schools, and using medical services.

A Turkish estate agent in Fatih, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because he was critical of the government, was sympathetic towards Syrians but said he understood public anger. “Erdogan used the Arabs [for political ends], and now he’s kicking them out,” he said. “There are more Turkish people without jobs, and maybe a Turkish worker will ask for 4,000 lira but a Syrian will take 1,500.”

In recent months, mobs have burnt down Syrian shops in Istanbul and refugees have reported an increase in targeted attacks.

In campaigning for mayoral elections earlier this year, both Imamoğlu and his AKP rival said the city was being overwhelmed by Syrians. Another opposition candidate, Ilay Aksoy, hung posters reading, “I won’t surrender Fatih to Syrians”.

The restaurant staff all told The New Humanitarian they had felt the shift in attitude.

When Abu Firas first arrived in Istanbul, his landlord was welcoming. The two men visited each other’s homes, met each other’s families, and wished each other a cheerful good morning when they passed on their way to work.

“Authorities are slowly making it harder by making new rules for refugees, putting pressure on them so that they choose to go home.”

A month and a half ago, he said, that changed: the landlord wouldn’t even acknowledge him. Abu Firas confronted him and asked what was wrong.

“It’s enough,” the man told him. “Now you have to go back to your country.”

Hamid, the restaurant manager, said he had been getting calls from people using private numbers and claiming to be police officers and demanding bribes; a Turkish woman stopped him on the street recently and told him to go home and stop taking government money.

One million returns?

In a small park by Fatih metro station, clusters of men and women sat smoking, enjoying the sun. Arabic was still the most common language, but the accents were Algerian, Egyptian, or Moroccan. Two young Egyptians said their Syrian neighbours won’t go outside anymore. Some, they said, have taken to sleeping in the factories where they work.

Loui al-Osman, a 23-year-old Syrian construction worker registered in Istanbul, sat alone. “I have so many friends without permits, and now they go out to work and home without doing anything else at all,” he said, adding that conditions were so difficult, and work so rare, that some had given up on life in Turkey.

“Authorities are slowly making it harder by making new rules for refugees, putting pressure on them so that they choose to go home,” he explained.

Almost 80,000 Syrians returned to their country in the first half of 2019, the state-owned Anadolu Agency news service reported last month. Erdogan has said the number will reach one million after Turkey establishes what it calls a “safe zone” in northeastern Syria, through a military operation against the Kurdish-dominated forces there.

Others are still willing to risk the journey from Syria to Turkey. Usayd, 22, recently arrived from Idlib and found work a street away from Abu Firas’s restaurant.

His first attempt to reach Istanbul involved lying with four others for hours in the freezing water of a drainage pipe under the border wall, before emerging into the torchlight of Turkish guards, who he says beat them and cut them with knives.

He was sent back across the border and tried again two weeks later. He said Turkey offers his only chance to make enough money to help his wife and family – including a daughter he has not yet met – flee Syria. He married young, he said, because of his three brothers: one was killed in the fighting, one lost a leg, and another is in a government-operated jail.

Abu Firas and his staff see few other options than hoping and hiding, although they all expect the restaurant to be closed down or go out of business.

“If I go back to Hatay, what am I going to do?,” Mahmoud, the chef, asked. “We would start from nothing.”

Hussein, younger than the others, worried that being sent back to Idlib would sentence him to forced recruitment by one of the extremist groups in the province.

“They’re like ISIS; I’m not like them,” he said. “I don’t even know how to hold a gun.”

(TOP PHOTO: A worker relaxes outside a restaurant during a quiet period in Istanbul's Fatih district.)

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‘Authorities are slowly making it harder by making new rules for refugees.’ For Istanbul’s Syrians, a time of hoping and hiding John Beck News feature Aid and Policy Migration Politics and Economics ISTANBUL IRIN Europe Middle East and North Africa Syria Turkey Migration
Categories: Middle East

EU-Rwanda plan: Another short-sighted answer to Libya migration crisis

IRIN - Middle East - Fri, 16/08/2019 - 12:31pm

After deadly airstrikes and attacks on migrant detention centres in Libya’s capital, Tripoli, the European Union has come up with a new plan to evacuate vulnerable migrants and refugees stranded in the volatile North African nation: send them to Rwanda.

The proposal – which is reported to involve some 500 detainees but does not yet have a timeline – is expected to alleviate some of the most immediate humanitarian needs facing migrants and refugees, many of whom have been caught in the crosshairs of Libya’s renewed civil war.

But it is an emergency fix that does little to address the needs of thousands of other migrants and refugees who remain stuck in detention centres and require direct evacuation from Libya to Europe, or other durable solutions.

The EU must also acknowledge that the new plan comes with a serious political price. Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame is not welcoming refugees simply out of generosity: he will likely ask for a diplomatic reward from Europe – one that boosts Rwanda’s international leadership on migration and refugee affairs, while remaining silent about recent human rights abuses.

It may come with a price for the migrants and refugees, too. The small East African country already hosts more than 148,000 refugees, and it has officially granted them social and economic rights, including the right to work. But rights on paper do not always equate to rights in practice, and refugees in Rwanda often struggle to access public services and employment opportunities. The government has also violently repressed refugee protests against discrimination and food shortages in camps.

The new relocation plan did not come out of thin air. In 2017, after CNN released a video of migrants auctioned off at markets in Tripoli, Rwanda offered to welcome some of those rescued from Libya.

At the time, however, it was deemed easier to transfer them to Niger, Libya’s southern neighbour. Thanks to an agreement reached at the African Union-EU summit meeting in November 2017, Niger has since welcomed over 2,900 migrants from Libya.

But Niger’s willingness to cooperate with Libya and the EU seems to have reached its limit. Those evacuated to Niger were supposed to be making a temporary stop before returning home with the assistance of the UN’s migration agency, or being resettled in Europe. But the operation faced repeated problems, largely because EU countries were too slow at actually resettling the evacuated refugees.

While the EU has invested heavily in curbing irregular migration through Niger, projects aimed at mitigating the downsides of strengthened border management – such as support to help smugglers in Agadez transition to new jobs – have so far failed to deliver.

As Niger heads into a presidential election in 2021, the government may become less inclined to cooperate with the Europeans and less willing to welcome more migrants across its borders.

For the time being, it seems that plans are for the 500 evacuees to stay in Rwanda, where they will either apply for asylum or, better, be granted refugee status directly. But if the EU wishes to make the arrangement sustainable – instead of a one-time evacuation – it must rectify the mistakes of Niger and make sure durable solutions are effectively offered to those who are evacuated.

This is not new to the EU, which is now used to trading away political capital and moral high ground for deals that keep migrants away from its shores.

There also needs to be a plan for how the 500 migrants will be selected, by whom, and how the EU and Rwanda will ensure that they travel on a voluntary basis. Compared to a journey to nearby Niger – which is already cumbersome – a flight to a faraway country may neither be sensible nor cost effective for already vulnerable people, especially if the plan is to resettle them to Europe later on.

The EU’s leverage over Rwandan policies –both towards migrants and refugees, and its own citizens – will meanwhile be limited, considering that Rwanda is doing Europe a favour. This is not new to the EU, which is now used to trading away political capital and moral high ground for deals that keep migrants away from its shores.

Ultimately, even if this arrangement with Rwanda works, it will remain an insufficient response. In the long-term European countries must focus greater effort on supporting solutions that decrease violence and increase stability in Libya. This will require measures that go well beyond the migration agenda and range from improving local governance to reform of the security sector and peacebuilding.

To apply the lessons learned from the experience in Niger, the EU should meanwhile ensure the agreement with Rwanda is one piece of a broader puzzle that includes more direct evacuations from Libya to Europe – as well as longer-term thinking about the structural issues Europeans and Africans face to make migration flows more regular, safe, and orderly.

(TOP PHOTO: A migrant leans against a pillar in the courtyard at a detention centrein al-Khoms, Libya.)

‘The new plan comes with a serious political price.’ EU-Rwanda plan: Another short-sighted answer to Libya migration crisis Camille Le Coz Opinion Migration Politics and Economics IRIN Africa Rwanda Europe European Union Middle East and North Africa Libya Migration
Categories: Middle East

UN evacuation mission to up pressure on Syrians to leave Rukban

IRIN - Middle East - Wed, 14/08/2019 - 4:16pm

UN and Red Crescent officials are set to begin a voluntary evacuation plan this week for thousands of displaced Syrians in the no man’s land camp of Rukban, but many residents are fearful of returning to Syrian government-held territory and say there are no new options.

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As many as 50,000 people fled to Rukban – near a US military base in a protected zone and close to the borders of Syria, Jordan, and Iraq – following the rise of so-called Islamic State and civil war in the eastern Homs desert region in 2015.

It’s estimated that between 11,000 and 24,000 Syrians still inhabit the desert camp, where residents have lived in increasingly desperate conditions since 2018 when aid access from Jordan was cut off apart from the occasional UN and Red Crescent convoy.

Activists and aid workers say the latest visit to Rukban seems little more than a message for the community to leave, and fear for the fate of thousands who may intend to stay, as well as those being pressured to return.

Read more: The origins of Rukban

A maximum of 24,000 displaced Syrians remain in Rukban, according to the latest UN estimate from late July. A recent tally by Amman-based research group Etana has placed the number of remaining residents significantly lower – at 11,000.

Before the war, Rukban was an empty corner of eastern Syrian desert along the border with Jordan. Only a lone highway stretched through the landscape, part of an international artery linking Baghdad to Damascus.

Displaced Syrians began fleeing to the area after a series of Islamic State invasions on their hometowns in eastern Homs province. With a border crossing nearby, the roughly 50,000 people who settled there never meant to stay in Rukban for long.

But they were barred from entering Jordan after an IS-claimed car bomb in 2016 killed several Jordanian soldiers at a nearby border post. Ongoing battles in eastern Syria prevented their return home. The settlement soon became a sprawl of makeshift mud homes and breeze block markets, where traders sold goods brought in by smugglers crossing the desert from government territory.

There are no doctors, and the harsh desert conditions regularly kill. At least 12 children died within the first two months of 2019, according to UNICEF. Nearly half of them were newborns. The only formal medical care is available at a UN-run clinic just across the border in Jordanian territory – but only for out-patient visits. Some critical cases are taken to hospitals elsewhere in Jordan.

The camp sits within a 55-kilometre zone controlled by a US-backed rebel militia based at the nearby al-Tanf garrison.

Damascus repeatedly criticises US presence at the base, while rarely granting the UN or the Red Crescent access to Rukban via Syrian territory.

US troops stationed at al-Tanf appear to have done little to help camp residents living within the 55-kilometre zone of their control, though their Syrian affiliates, the Mughawir a-Thowra rebel group, announced it had delivered unspecified “aid” supplies to Rukban last week.

Jordan, spooked by the 2016 car bomb, has meanwhile refused to allow aid deliveries to the camp from its territory since 2018, when it permitted supplies to enter Rukban via crane. Officials in Amman have since called Rukban “Syria’s responsibility”, rather than their own.

A UN statement on 8 August said the mission would “assess needs and determine the exact numbers of those who want to leave, assist voluntary departures from Rukban, and provide relief to those remaining”.

But no aid supplies will be provided in the first round of visits, according to an announcement circulated to camp residents on the messaging service WhatsApp. It said the first visit would begin on Thursday and would last five days.

The message bears no signature, but residents said they received it from UN representatives. Two UN officials and a diplomatic source, insisting on anonymity due to the sensitivity of the operation, confirmed that the message reflected the mission’s plan.

A 13 August statement from camp leaders reacting to the plan called for “regular, organised food and medical aid to those who wish to remain in Rukban”, international protection, and the option of a safe passage for residents to opposition-held northern Syria.

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Hedinn Halldorsson, a spokesperson for the UN’s emergency aid coordination body, OCHA, confirmed to The New Humanitarian that the UN/SARC mission was “being prepared”, but declined to provide further information about timing.

Officials from OCHA, UNHCR, and UNICEF either declined to comment on the convoy, citing a policy not to speak to the press about the operation before it launches, or did not respond by time of publication. A SARC spokesperson did not respond to requests for comment.

The planned visit follows months of severe food and medicine shortages in the informal border camp. Residents have blamed the worsening crisis on pro-Syrian-government forces blocking vital desert smuggling routes that once supplied the camp with everything from food to baby formula to medical supplies and soap.

Residents reached by TNH by phone and message services said supplies were low. “We wish we could receive aid supplies,” one camp resident, who handles informal charitable donations said, adding that his supply point was all but empty.

‘Give us another choice’

“I’m not considering going back to regime territory,” Rami, a young Rukban resident, told TNH, requesting a pseudonym for security reasons. Like others, he had heard from recent returnees about prolonged stays at reception centres in Homs city, and accounts of military conscription. Those he spoke to had returned to Homs aboard government bus convoys as part of a Russian-backed “humanitarian corridor” out of the camp.

Rami said he felt the upcoming UN/SARC convoy presents people like him, who don’t wish to return to government territory due to fear of reprisals, with few options, especially as remaining in Rukban means coping with a deteriorating humanitarian situation. There is a smuggling route – via motorcycle, and only for men – from the camp to northern Syria, but Rami said he couldn’t afford it and didn’t want to risk the dangerous desert journey.

“Give us another choice,” he said.

Rami, and several other camp residents who spoke with TNH, said they would prefer safe passage to opposition-held territory in northern Syria.

“We don’t want to return to regime territory,” said Yara, a mother of six living in Rukban, also speaking on condition of anonymity due to security concerns.

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Yara and her husband are struggling to afford the costs of feeding their family after her sewing business and his repair shop in Rukban lost customers, but they’ve ruled out going along with the UN/SARC evacuation plan to Homs.

“Returning to the regime isn’t safe,” she said. “What we want is to go to the north to find a safe area where we can stay, an area with stability.”

Most of those who left the camp have reportedly returned to their home areas in Syrian government-held areas after a brief stay in transit centres in Homs.

A May study from the Euopean Institute for Peace think tank found that, in common with other returnees to Homs and other parts of the country, some of the evacuees from Rukban are being “detained, ill treated, and forced to undergo interrogation and reconciliation”.

Some Rukban residents with family members who have left say their loved ones have alleged abuse in the government-run “reception centres” in Homs. Occasional UN inspections of transit centres in the city reported no ill treatment, but the UN has no capacity for monitoring and interviewing returnees once they reach their final destinations.

The evacuation plan

According to the WhatsApp message received by camp residents, after interviews, SARC plans to issue an “ID card” to those who agree to leave – many of those displaced for years by the war have lost their official paperwork.

The message says relief items and free transportation to transit centres in Homs will be provided in a subsequent operation. Special arrangements can be made for those with acute health or other issues.

A senior aid official, who said they “vehemently disagreed” with the approach, pointed out that this operation is unlike three previous UN/SARC convoys that had delivered dozens of truckloads of food, medicine, and other supplies across the front line.

The upcoming mission is to “figure out who’s who in there”, and prepare to get anyone out who “even remotely” wants to leave, the official said, asking to remain anonymous to protect sensitive professional relationships.

The WhatsApp message says those who don’t plan to leave will meet UN officials separately from SARC “to try to find sustainable solutions”, and that those meetings, including “community representatives”, will “assess key needs and understand the requirements of those who have chosen to stay”. Those who stay will receive unspecified “relief items” later.

In a survey conducted in February, about 14 percent (5,700) of the estimated 41,000 Rukban residents at the time said they either did not want to leave or would only consider going to opposition-controlled parts of Syria. That group largely said they feared reprisals when they return to areas of Syrian government control.

Rukban is thought to house members and families of rebel armed groups as well as civilians, all drawn largely from tribes in the wider Homs province.

The February survey suggested that, in principle, 95 percent of Rukban residents wanted to leave. But universally they had worries about safety and security at their destination. Many were concerned about a lack of official papers and some feared forced conscription.

About 17,700 people have voluntarily left Rukban since February, after the residents were offered transport and assurances of safe passage from the Syrian and Russian authorities. Because some others in the camp have taken clandestine routes to leave, estimates of the remaining population from UN and other analysts vary from 11,000 to 24,000.

(Additional reporting by Ben Parker.)

(TOP PHOTO: A member of the Syrian Arab Red Crescent on a bus with displaced people from Rukban at the Jordanian border.)

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‘We don’t want to return to regime territory.’ UN evacuation mission to up pressure on Syrians to leave Rukban Madeline Edwards News Aid and Policy Conflict AMMAN IRIN Middle East and North Africa Syria Conflict
Categories: Middle East

Syrians in United States get immigration reprieve

IRIN - Middle East - Fri, 02/08/2019 - 5:27pm

Syrians living in the United States have won an 18-month extension on their “Temporary Protected Status”. The status allows them to live and work in the United States.

Some 7,000 Syrians in the United States are among more than 300,000 people whose immigration status has been protected after fleeing from war, natural disasters, or disease. Other countries such as Australia and Canada offer similar programmes for Syrians.

“It’s impossible for me to go back to Syria,” says Nada Odeh, a single mother of two teenagers, referring to continued fighting and battered infrastructure.

Odeh was born and raised in Damascus but left Syria with her children in 2012 as the violence began to intensify. She now works as an artist in Syracuse, New York. Her paintings feature displaced Syrians living in refugee camps.

Fighting has continued for almost nine years in Syria and is still raging in northwestern Idlib. Some parts of the country have returned to calm, but neighbourhoods and city blocks in certain areas are in ruins. A complex web of new property laws introduced by the government also means many refugees may never be able to return home.

“We’re talking about a dire humanitarian situation,” says Sara Kayyali, a researcher for Human Rights Watch, which recently urged the United States to renew TPS for Syrians. “The very conditions that resulted in Syrians fleeing [since the start of the conflict] are more or less still the same.”

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Established in 1990, TPS is a federal programme meant to bar deportation of people from countries undergoing conflict or natural disasters.

US authorities first designated Syria with TPS status in 2012, months into the now more than eight-year war. The programme has been extended and redesignated several times since then.

“Nothing’s guaranteed – which is the whole point of TPS,” says Matthew Chrastek, programme coordinator for the American Relief Coalition for Syria, a humanitarian aid NGO. “The point of TPS is to allow people to stay here safely until conditions in Syria are safe for them to return.”

Last year, rights groups raised alarms when some 200,000 TPS holders from El Salvador faced possible deportation after the federal government said their protection would end in September 2019. The programme was later extended until 2020.

Still, the instability left shockwaves among those who feared they could be deported.

TPS had been scheduled to expire this year for four other countries – Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador – but the government has extended it through Jan. 2, 2020, after being blocked in court. Immigrant advocates recently filed a separate lawsuit challenging the decision to end TPS for those from Nepal and Honduras. Only those from South Sudan, Syria, Yemen and Somalia have received TPS extensions with the possibility of future extension.

(TOP PHOTO: Destruction in Idlib on 14 March 2019.)

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‘It’s impossible for me to go back to Syria.’ Syrians in United States get immigration reprieve Madeline Edwards News Migration Conflict AMMAN IRIN United States Middle East and North Africa Syria Migration
Categories: Middle East

Syria deaths soar as Idlib airstrikes target key roads

IRIN - Middle East - Wed, 31/07/2019 - 2:56pm

As a government assault on Syria’s rebel-held northwest heads into its fourth month, the violence – and mounting attacks on civilians and hospitals, schools, and homes — has increasingly centred on two crucial highways, and the towns dotted along them.

It is on areas around the M5, which once ran from Deraa to Aleppo, and around the M4, connecting Latakia to Aleppo – that Syrian and Russian planes have focused their bombing campaign, striking residential neighbourhoods, vital medical facilities, and markets.

By the UN’s count, more than 450 civilians have been killed and 440,000 people forced to flee their homes since the late April breakdown of an already shaky ceasefire in Idlib and rebel-held parts of nearby provinces.

In a briefing to the Security Council on Tuesday, UN relief chief Mark Lowcock described it as more than 90 days of “carnage” and said: "What you see is a level of destruction consistent with a bombing campaign aimed at a scorched earth policy.”

The airstrikes reached a deadly peak last week, when warplanes struck several highway towns on 22 July, including a crowded public market in the southern Idlib city of Ma’arat al-Nu’man, killing at least 39 in the market and an estimated 60 total that day.

50-year-old Marwan, who requested a pseudonym to protect his identity, was setting up his ice cream truck in the market last Monday morning when the bombs hit.

Marwan, who was forced to evacuate the southern city of Deraa for Idlib when pro-government forces took the area from rebels last July, said he was standing just over a dozen metres from the initial bomb blast, and fell to the ground when it struck the crowded street.

Photos shared online after the attack showed piles of concrete rubble and a massive crater in the middle of what was a main road just moments before.

“There was dust everywhere; I couldn’t see in front of me,” Marwan said by phone.

He got up from the ground and fled, afraid of a second airstrike. The planes returned later.

“The market had been full of people,” Marwan said. “Everyone was coming outside to do their shopping.”

The bombing has also devastated healthcare facilities. Physicians for Human Rights has recorded some 46 attacks on hospitals and medical clinics in the embattled Idlib pocket so far since April, including those had shared their coordinates with the UN and the warring parties as part of a mechanism meant to prevent their targeting.

Lowcock said Tuesday, not for the first time, that the system “is not proving effective in helping to protect those who utilise [it]”.

Highways through Idlib

In the early days of the fighting, rebel groups explicitly accused pro-government forces of trying to seize the M4 and M5 using airstrikes.

Until the April breakdown, the relative calm had been kept by a September deal, crafted by Turkey and Russia, that required hardline rebels to withdraw from a “buffer zone” that includes the countryside lining the highways.

The agreement covered Idlib as well as rebel-held parts of neighbouring Hama, Aleppo, and Latakia provinces. It was meant to stave off a widely anticipated assault by pro-government forces on the northwestern rebel stronghold, and an ensuing humanitarian catastrophe.

Hardline Islamist rebel group Tahrir al-Sham has not withdrawn from the “buffer zone”, which is one of the Syrian government’s rationales for the current campaign.

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But the ultimate goal of the assault is still not apparent. Any effort to retake the countryside along the two highways has mostly stalled as back-and-forth ground skirmishes between the sides yield few advances, although last week pro-government forces seized control of some territory near Ma’arat al-Nu’man after the market bombing.

Elizabeth Tsurkov, a Washington, DC-based research fellow with the Forum for Regional Thinking, said capturing the highways would be a major strategic victory for President Bashar al-Assad’s government.

“Reopening of these roads will allow the regime to freely move goods and people between Hama and the rest of regime-controlled Syria to Latakia and to Aleppo,” said Tsurkov. Renewed control of the highways could also open trade routes to Turkey in the future, she added.

Civilians and hospitals

Dotting much of Idlib province are dozens of hospitals, bakeries, and water stations now bombed out of service or reduced to rubble. “These are civilian objects,” UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet said in a 26 July statement. “It seems highly unlikely, given the persistent pattern of such attacks, that they are all being hit by accident.”

Hospitals, too, lie along the roads – as do the routes to get to them.

Two weeks ago, Qusai al-Khateeb, an opposition-aligned citizen journalist in rural Idlib, made the difficult choice to take his two-year-old son, Salah al-Din, to see a doctor.

Salah al-Din’s temperature was rising, he was having trouble breathing, and the medicine al-Khateeb had at home did not help.

“Wherever there are people gathered, they bomb.”

Al-Khateeb said taking his son to see a doctor meant a dangerous drive, as there are no more operational hospitals in the area surrounding his village, which is not far from Ma’arat al-Nu’man.

He waited until the evening call to prayer marked sunset and drove 35 kilometres north towards the village of Ariha. They travelled under the cover of darkness to avoid detection from the skies, avoiding the M4 and M5 highways. “The warplanes target them,” he told The New Humanitarian by phone.

A doctor was waiting in Ariha for al-Khateeb and his son, who turned out to have a serious bacterial infection in his abdomen. “Thank God there was medicine available,” al-Khateeb said. His son’s condition is improving steadily, but he was lucky.

The Syrian government has told the Security Council that 119 hospitals have been taken over by terrorist groups so could no longer be considered civilian targets, and that there was no ambulance network left in Idlib. Lowcock hit back against both of these assertions in his remarks on Tuesday.

General surgeon Dr. Wassel Aljork worked at a hospital near Ma’arat al-Nu’man until it was bombed out of service earlier this month.

Speaking by phone, he told TNH he hadn’t been able to retrieve any equipment from the building, and now treats who he can from a rudimentary clinic he runs from his home. His medical supplies, he said, are “very basic”. But there are few other options for injured and sick residents amid a healthcare system that has been seriously damaged by the recent onslaught.

“Wherever there are people gathered, they bomb,” said Marwan, whose ice cream truck and sole source of income was damaged in last week’s market attack in Ma’arat al-Nu’man. “Hospitals, markets, everything. We don’t have any safety except in God.”

(TOP PHOTO: The aftermath of a reported airstrike on the village of Ariha, in the south of Syria's Idlib province, 28 July 2019.)

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Syria deaths soar as Idlib airstrikes target key roads Madeline Edwards News Conflict AMMAN IRIN Middle East and North Africa Syria Conflict
Categories: Middle East

Uptick in suicides signals deepening mental health crisis for Iraq’s Yazidis

IRIN - Middle East - Mon, 29/07/2019 - 12:02pm

Nearly five years since the so-called Islamic State came to Iraq’s Sinjar, killing and abducting thousands and forcing tens of thousands more into flight, many Yazidis are struggling to deal with the psychological aftermath of what a UN commission has deemed genocide.

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A growing suicide rate is one sign of how difficult the community – whose historical homeland is in northern Iraq – is finding it to rebuild after a horrific recent past.

Since the start of April, when the medical charity Médecins Sans Frontières began counting, it has recorded the suicide of 20 young Yazidis living near Sinjar mountain, which thousands of people climbed to escape IS in August 2014, and where some 16,000 people still live. The youngest death was a 13-year-old girl, the oldest a 30-year-old woman.

“Suicide is a big problem, and we started seeing a severe increase in April,” said Elise Loyens, MSF’s medical team leader in the Sinjar town of Sinouni, where the group supports a hospital run by the Iraqi government’s department of health. “We were appalled by the numbers and severity of methods and attempts, including women who set themselves on fire.”

MSF is not the only NGO trying to tackle the psychological and psychiatric needs of Yazidis in the area, but it does have the largest footprint. It is overstretched, due to both the high demand for its services and the difficulty of finding trained mental health professionals in a country that has long had a shortage of psychologists and psychiatrists.

Read more → Iraq’s growing mental health problem

And that’s just in Sinjar district, which has an estimated population of 90,000, down from more than 200,000 before the war. Hundreds of thousands of Yazidis remain displaced elsewhere in Iraq – either unwilling or unable to return to their homes – and many of them need treatment too, as they cope with a violent past and what some see as a bleak future.

Both healthcare providers and patients say there isn’t enough help to meet the massive mental health needs in the Yazidi community.

“It’s not a small thing that happened to us. We were children. We were kidnapped and kept from our families for four years.”

Sherihan Ali, 20, was sold multiple times into slavery and made to endure sexual servitude to IS members and later to extremists from another group.

“It’s not a small thing that happened to us. We were children. We were kidnapped and kept from our families for four years,” she said. “We’re scared here. We still have fears and we need treatment, especially psychological treatment, because we were raped many times and our condition is not good at all.”

Ali returned to Sinouni last April, weighing just 28 kilogrammes. She said the only help she received was one month in a medical centre in Sulaymaniyah province, where treatment mainly focused on her physical well-being.

Shaima Ali, 22, an assistant midwife in Sinouni, says she and many others in her community are worried about what’s to come. “Before IS, I had hopes and dreams, but now; nothing,” she said. “I never think about the future. We just live in the present and try to get through the days.”

Professor Ilham Kizilhan, dean of the Institute of Psychotherapy and Psychotraumatology in Dohuk – a province in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq where many Yazidis fled to and now remain – is also concerned, but about what might happen if the wider mental health needs of the Yazidi community remain unmet.

“Trauma could move into ‘chronic disease’, where people can no longer function,” Kizilhan said. “[This could] impact families and society, and could lead to trans-generational trauma, where trauma symptoms will be passed onto future generations.”

Treating everyone ‘an impossible task’

Almost every Yazidi family has been impacted, in one way or another, by IS persecution. Many lost multiple family members, and those who did not still had to flee their homes, often losing all their possessions.

According to the department of health in Dohuk, 620,000 members of the minority group remain away from home. The UN’s latest figures, which do not distinguish by ethnicity, show that 296,000 displaced people are originally from Sinjar; that’s 18 percent of Iraq’s total displaced population of 1.6 million.

“If a population faces a trauma like genocide, 50 percent will be traumatised and at least 30 percent of these will need clinical help,” said Kizilhan, citing studies. Treating everyone, he said, is “an impossible task”.

That’s one of the reasons Kizilhan’s institute was opened in 2017 – funded by the German government to teach a new generation of Iraqi psychiatrists. “We cannot provide psychotherapy for 300,000 people, so our job is to train,” the professor explained.

MSF’s Loyens pointed out that not all psychological problems Yazidis face are directly related to IS.

The UN’s migration agency, IOM, raised the alarm about suicides in the community back in 2011, when women made up more than half of the deaths. Suspected causes included cultural issues, notably disapproval of marriage outside of the faith, as well as economic concerns like the high cost of living.

These days, Loyens said, there’s a feeling of hopelessness for both men and women.

“Most mental health presentations are related to loss; the loss of family members is a huge issue, and that sense of loss is immense, but also other losses including homes and livelihoods,” she explained. “Men suffer a lot as they have lost all economic means, they don’t know how to get these back, and they’re providers to huge families.”

According to local pharmacist Mourad Khro Mourad, six international aid groups provide some sort of mental healthcare in Sinjar district, but MSF’s project is by far the largest. Its staff are currently seeing 200 patients, and there’s a 50-strong waiting list. With one psychiatrist and one psychologist, both expats, the programme relies heavily on local staff with only basic training.

Treatment is being held back by limited human resources.

Iraq’s handful of professional psychologists and psychiatrists appear loath to work in Sinouni, a remote northern town only 20 kilometres from the Syrian border. Even at a mental health treatment centre in Mosul – a major city in the north – no one has applied for one government-funded psychiatrist role for over a year.

MSF is trying to expand its programme, visiting even more remote areas to advise villagers that mental healthcare is now available in Sinouni. It also runs a weekly mental health clinic, always fully booked, on Sinjar mountain.

sinjar-region-photo-village.jpg Tom Westcott/TNH Many villages in Sinjar remain deserted, with limited security and no basic services.

Gradually, word is spreading, with more people coming to the hospital and clinic saying they think they need help. For many, though, these services remain hard to access, and there are no official permanent mental health services in Sinjar town.

‘They lost their identity’

Among the most profoundly traumatised are those who survived IS enslavement, many of whom have still not gone back to Sinjar or its surroundings.

Dohuk’s department of health founded an outpatient treatment centre for survivors in September 2014, when the first Yazidi woman escaped from IS. Mostly treating patients aged between 15 and 25 years old, it has seen girls as young as nine and women as old as 60.

“They’re complicated cases, having experienced multiple traumas and losses at a young age. Forced to convert, pray and change their names, and subjected to sexual enslavement, they were [mentally] destroyed so badly they lost their identity,” said the director general of the health department, psychiatrist Dr. Nezar Ismet Taib, adding that suicidal thoughts were common among survivors.

As IS began to collapse and more women escaped, the centre quickly became overwhelmed. “We didn’t have enough resources, psychiatrists or psychotherapists, which is why we asked for outside help and started the institute to train new people,” Taib said, adding that 28 qualified psychotherapists will graduate from the Dohuk institute next year. “Support is coming, but it has needed time.”

The Dohuk centre has treated 1,400 survivors to date, including 700 current patients, but this represents less than half of the 3,476 Yazidis who have so far returned from IS captivity, according to the Kurdistan Regional Government’s Office of Kidnapped Yazidis.

For other displaced Yazidis, including those who were not enslaved by IS but still need help, Kizilhan said various NGOs offer support, but much of it is short-term, while many people need prolonged, professional care. Psychiatrists and local volunteers also pointed to other factors that could contribute to (or hinder) successful treatment, saying more permanent housing and jobs were needed to help address the mental healthcare crisis.

But sometimes even limited help can provide a lifeline.

“If I hadn’t had this help after I came back, I would have completely lost my mind.”

Tarko, a 30-year-old mother of five from Sinouni who asked that her full name not be published, said that without the assistance she receives, she wouldn’t be able to afford to feed, clothe, or educate her children.

After she and her three daughters were held captive by IS in Iraq and Syria for three years, Tarko was rescued in 2017 when the part of Syria where they were kept was recaptured by Syrian forces. Since her return, she was reunited with her husband and gave birth to twin boys.

She has not gone back home, but instead lives in a tent in an informal roadside settlement in Dohuk province. She sees a psychologist every three months and attends regular group survivor meetings. Her oldest daughter, aged 10, also met with a psychologist for four months.

Tarko said she relied heavily on this aid and a network of other survivors, especially now, after her application for asylum in France was just rejected: “If I hadn’t had this help after I came back, I would have completely lost my mind.”

(TOP PHOTO: Sherihan Ali, who weighed only 28 kilogrammes when she first escaped captivity, said most of the treatment she received focused on her physical, rather than mental, well-being.)

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Uptick in suicides signals deepening mental health crisis for Iraq’s Yazidis Tom Westcott News feature Migration Conflict Health SINOUNI Iraq IRIN Middle East and North Africa Iraq Health
Categories: Middle East